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Please read the article attached and write a 500-600 word critical analysis.
Recall the criteria that should be covered when engaging in critical analysis of text: purpose, audience, context, claims, evidence/support, bias.
This is what you will be using to analyze the reading.
An introductory paragraph should be included.
Include a thesis statement in your introduction (your own argument about the reading, telling us why you agreed or disagreed with the article). You may use this format: “In this essay, I will argue that [your argument] because [your reasoning].”
Write the analysis using complete sentences and full body paragraphs.
Paraphrase text material – use your own words.
No APA is required.
Grammar/Spelling will also be evaluated.
Hospital Robots Are Helping Combat a Wave of Nurse Burnout
Khari Johnson, Wired, April 19 2022
SINCE FEBRUARY, THE nurses at Mary Washington Hospital in Fredericksburg, Virginia, have had
an extra assistant on their shifts: Moxi, a 4-foot-tall robot that ferries medication, supplies, lab
samples, and personal items through the halls, from floor to floor. After two years of battling
Covid-19 and related burnout, nurses say it’s been a welcome relief.
“There’s two levels of burnout: There’s ‘we’re short this weekend’ burnout, and then there’s
pandemic burnout, which our care teams are experiencing right now,” says Abigail Hamilton, a
former ICU and emergency room nurse that manages nursing staff support programs at the
Moxi is one of several specialized delivery robots that has been developed in recent years to
ease the strain on health care workers. Even before the pandemic, nearly half of US nurses felt
that their workplace lacked adequate work–life balance. The emotional toll of seeing patients
die and colleagues infected at such a large scale—and fear of bringing Covid-19 home to
family—has made feelings of burnout worse. Studies also found that burnout can have longterm consequences for nurses, including cognitive impacts and insomnia years after the
exhaustion of their early careers. The world already had a nurse shortage going into the
pandemic; now, roughly two out of three nurses in the US say they have considered leaving the
profession, according to a survey from the National Nurses United union.
In some places the shortage is leading to higher wages for permanent staff and for temporary
travel nurses. In countries such as Finland, nurses are demanding better pay and going on
strike. But it’s also paved the way for more robots in health care settings.
At the forefront of this trend is Moxi, which has spent the pandemic rolling down the halls of
some of the largest hospitals in the country, carrying objects like a smartphone or beloved
teddy bear to patients in emergency rooms when Covid-19 protocol kept family members from
Moxi was created by Diligent Robotics, a company cofounded in 2017 by Vivian Chu, a former
Google X researcher, and Andrea Thomaz, who developed Moxi while working as an associate
professor at the University of Texas at Austin. The roboticists met when Thomaz advised Chu at
Georgia Tech’s Socially Intelligent Machines Lab. The first Moxi commercial deployment came
months after the start of the pandemic. About 15 Moxi robots are now operational in US
hospitals, with an additional 60 scheduled to deploy later this year.
“In 2018, any hospital that was thinking about working with us, it was a special project for the
CFO or innovation project about the hospital of the future,” says Diligent Robotics CEO Andrea
Thomaz. “What we saw over the last two years is that almost every single health care system is
thinking about robotics and automation or has robotics and automation on their strategic
A range of robots have been developed in recent years to carry out health care tasks like
disinfecting hospital wards or assisting physical therapists. Robots that touch people—like
Robear, which helped lift elderly people out of bed in Japan—remain largely experimental, due
in part to liability and regulatory requirements. Far more common are specialized delivery
Moxi is equipped with a robotic arm and can greet passersby with cooing sounds and heart
eyes on a digital face. But in practice Moxi is less of a caregiver and more like Tug, another
hospital delivery robot, or Burro, a robot helping farm workers in California grape vineyards. A
camera on the front and lidar sensor on the back help Moxi map the floors of hospitals and spot
people and items it should avoid.
Nurses can hail Moxi robots from kiosks at nursing stations or send the robot a task via text
message. Moxi might be used to transport items that are too big to fit into a tube system, like
IV pumps; lab samples and other fragile cargo; or specialty items, like a slice of birthday cake.
A survey of nurses who worked with delivery robots similar to Moxi in a hospital in Cyprus
found that roughly half expressed concern that robots represent a threat to their jobs, but they
have a long way to go before they could conceivably replace humans. Moxi still needs help with
basic tasks. For example, Moxi might have to ask a human to press an elevator button for a
More concerning, the cybersecurity risks hospital delivery robots present aren’t very well
understood. Last week, security firm Cynerio showed that exploiting a vulnerability can allow
hackers to take remote control of Tug robots or open patients up to privacy violations. (No
comparable bugs have been found in Moxi robots, and the company says it’s taking steps to
ensure its “security position.”)
Around the time of Moxi’s first commercial deployment in 2020, an American Nurses
Association–supported case study assessed Moxi trials at hospitals in Dallas, Houston, and
Galveston, Texas. Researchers cautioned that use of such robots requires more thorough supply
management by hospital staff, because robots don’t read expiration dates; using expired
bandages can increase risk of infections.
A majority of the 21 nurses interviewed as part of the review said Moxi gave them more time to
talk with patients being discharged from the hospital. Numerous nurses said Moxi saved them
energy, brought joy to patients and their families, and ensured that patients always had water
when it was time for them to take their medication. “I could do it faster, but it’s better for Moxi
to do it so I can do something else more useful,” said one of the surveyed nurses. In less
positive feedback, nurses complained that Moxi had trouble maneuvering through cramped
halls during the morning rush or anticipating needs by accessing electronic health records.
Another said some patients were suspicious of “the robot’s eyes recording them.” Authors of
that case study concluded that Moxi is incapable of delivering skilled nursing care and is best
suited to focusing on low-risk, repetitive tasks that can save nurses time.
Those types of tasks can represent big business. In addition to its recent expansion into new
hospitals, Diligent Robotics announced the closure of a $30 million funding round last week.
The company will use the funding in part to more closely integrate Moxi’s software with
electronic health records in order to carry out tasks without the need for a nurse or doctor to
make a request.
In her experience, Abigail Hamilton of Mary Washington Hospital says burnout has the power to
force people into early retirement, push them toward temporary travel nurse work, impact
their relationships with loved ones, or make them leave the industry altogether.
Still, she says, the simple things Moxi does can make a difference. It can save nurses the 30
minutes it might take to go from the fifth floor to the basement to pick up medication that can’t
go through the tube system from the pharmacy. And picking up after-hour meals for patients is
one of Moxi’s most popular tasks. Since two Moxi robots began operating in the halls of Mary
Washington Hospital in February, they’ve given workers back approximately 600 hours of time.
“As a society, we’re not who we were in February 2020,” Hamilton said when explaining why
her hospital uses robots. “We have to think of different ways to support caregivers at the